Central Alliance News


In recent months, the Applied Technologies team has rapidly expanded it’s in-field and office seismic capabilities for P-Wave, S-Wave, and Surface Wave Testing.

P-waves (Primary waves) and S-waves (Secondary or Shear waves) are types of seismic waves generated from sources controlled by the Applied Technologies team. These waves travel through the Earth and provide valuable information about conditions below the surface.

1. P-waves (Primary waves):

  • Nature: P-waves are compressional waves, meaning they cause particles in the material through which they travel to move back and forth in the same direction as the wave is moving.
  • Speed: P-waves are the fastest seismic waves and can travel through solids, liquids, and gases. 
  • Propagation: They are the first waves to be recorded by seismographs after an earthquake. 
  • Characteristics: P-waves are characterised by their ability to travel through any medium, causing alternating compression and expansion of the material. 
2. S-waves (Secondary or Shear waves)
  • Nature: S-waves are shear waves, causing particles to move perpendicular to the direction of the wave. 
  • Speed: S-waves are slower than P-waves and can only travel through solids. They cannot propagate through liquids or gases. 
  • Propagation: S-waves follow P-waves in seismic activity and are recorded after P-waves on seismographs.
  • Characteristics: S-waves are responsible for the side-to-side shaking motion during an earthquake. They are often more destructive than P-waves because they have a greater impact on structures.

In summary, P-waves are faster and can travel through solids, liquids, and gases, while S-waves are slower and can only travel through solids. The analysis of these seismic waves helps our team understand the structures below the ground and provides crucial information about densities below the surface.

As for the already existing and in-use Continuous Surface Wave Geophysical survey equipment, the team has resourced, developed and already field tested a brand new Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) technique to compliment the Continuous Surface Wave (CSW) equipment, and resourced the brand new seismic unit for the CPT rig, designed for intrusive P-Wave and S-Wave investigations. 
Central Alliance now has all the tools needed to explore every niche of seismic testing and aims to open up a whole new avenue of geophysical clientele. 
Completing a Continuous Surface Wave test on a railway in Scotland

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